An accounting document is a record that serves as a voucher for the entries recorded in the accounting books, and it is stamped as “paid” after the vendor has received payment. Payments are posted to the appropriate general ledger accounts. They are different types of accounting documents which we will discuss in the last part of this article.
So, to begin with, what is a debit note?
A debit note is a document / voucher delivered by one party to another and attesting that the other party’s account has been debited from the sender’s books.
Components of an accounting document
Accounting documents must be prepared for a business by an accountant. Source documents are documents associated with a business transaction. Examples of such documents are cash certificates, invoices, bank deposit slips, receipts, challans and other information proving the existence of a transaction in an organization.
The voucher includes:
- Voucher serial number
- Type and date of voucher
- Debit and Credit Column
- Amount in figures and words
- Details column (where the brief description of the transaction is recorded)
- Space for accountant’s signature
- Signature of authorized person
- Signature of recipients (for the bank payment slip.
An accountant must follow specific procedures when preparing a supporting document, such as
- All supporting documents must be carefully checked (date, amount, nature of transactions, signature)
- An authorized person must approve all supporting documents.
- The accountant should determine the type of voucher that will be used to prepare the transaction.
- The accountant must ensure that the debit and credit of the supporting document are balanced.
Different types of accounting documents
- Debit or payment voucher: It is the supporting document which shows that the monetary transaction took place.
- It shows that the company paid another third party and other parties.
- Credit or receipt voucher: The document proves that the company has received cash from a customer, bank or other third party.
- This voucher can be used for sales receipts, share capital injections, bank interest, receivables from accounts receivable and cash from other sources.
- Cashless or transfer voucher (journal voucher):
These are vouchers for transactions that do not involve cash flow; they are also called journal vouchers.
- Examples are depreciation, credit selling, credit buying, adjustment, and reversal postings.
- To keep control of the payment process.
- Business transactions are very precise.
- Many invoices can be paid at the same time (reduction in the number of checks).
- Invoice approval and payment are separate, making planning easier.
- This makes it easy to determine the origin of the transaction.
- During a business audit, serve as a critical source of evidence.
- Reduces the possibility of employees attempting to steal company assets.
Each company must prepare these supporting documents for accounting purposes. These records are essential for any business to track all income and expenses and ensure legal compliance. Accounting is also required in every organization, even if it is small, as it can organize everything and take care of all tax filing requests.